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Home > Toolmark Identification > Objectives

At the conclusion of this module the student should be able to do the following:

  • Identify the common metal shaping operations used in the manufacture of tools, including
    • common cutting operations based on the formation of metal chips,
    • common metal forming operations not involving cutting,
    • modern metal machining techniques.
  • Describe the following concepts as they relate to the formulation of conclusions relating to toolmark examination and comparison:
    • Class characteristics
    • Individual characteristics
    • Subclass characteristics
    • AFTE Theory of Identification
    • Pattern matching
    • Sufficient agreement
    • Best known nonmatch
    • Consecutive matching striae (CMS)
    • AFTE Range of Conclusions
  • Explain  the differences between the terms
    • identification,
    • inconclusive,
    • elimination,
    • unsuitable.
  • Itemize the essential items of equipment necessary to carry out the comparison microscopy of toolmarks.
  • Summarize the prerequisites that must be addressed prior to initiating any examination or comparison of toolmarked evidence.
  • Describe the examination protocol for the microscopic comparison of the class and individual characteristics represented by toolmarks.
  • Describe the examination protocol for the examination and comparison of fracture marks.

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